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Global Warming Skeptics Thread
Wikipedia is prone to bias and the articles relating to Climate Change and Global Warming are not without bias.

Note that mcabromb's Wiki link is very careful in it's effort to exclude any possible dissent.
I know you think you understand what you thought I said,
but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant!
John L Wrote:VI. Cosmic Rays and Galactic Influence

Solar Activity And Climate

Solar Variability And Climate Change

The Sunspot Cycle

Sun spot number: correlation with global warming

A CRITIQUE ON THE LOCKWOOD/FROHLICH PAPER in the Royal Society proceedings, by Ken Gregory, Friends of Science Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Solar activity & climate: is the sun causing global warming?

Cosmic Rays and Climate, By: Nir J. Shaviv

Cosmic Rays and Climate(different article from above)

Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth's Climate, byHenrik Svensmark

Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

An experiment that hints we are wrong on climate change
Nigel Calder

Link between sunspots, rain helps predict disease in east Africa

Blame cosmic rays not CO2 for warming up the planet

Cosmoclimatology: A New Perspective on Global Warming

Galactic Cosmic Rays, Clouds and Climate Change

Blunting the greenhouse panic, by Steven J. Milloy

An experiment that hints we are wrong on climate change, by Nigel Calder

Sun-Climate and Cosmic Ray-Climate Resources on the Web

Nigel Calder on the importance of Cosmic Rays, improper interpretation of the GW Debate, and the forthcoming book "The Chilling Stars".

Cosmic Rays Blamed For Global Warming


Esteemed Ottawa scientist says cosmic rays, not greenhouse gases, cause global warming: With trepidation, Jan Veizer suggests the accepted view of climate change is wrong.

"SKY" experiment demonstrates link between cosmic rays and condensation nuclei!

Cosmic rays set climate change on Earth, expert says
Scientist challenges greenhouse-gas theory

Cosmic Rays Linked To Clouds

Cosmic ray link to global warming boosted

Cosmic Rays And Earth's Cloud Cover: Index of Henrik Svensmark

Nigel Marsh Home Page: The Sun's Influence on Climate: A Cloud-Cosmic Ray Link?

Type in "Cosmic Ray Days" in Search window of TCS Daily

Type in "The Sun, Cosmic Rays and Our Environment" in Search Window of TCS Daily

Type in "The Geologic Record and Climate Change" in Search Window of TCS Daily

Bibliography relating to cosmic rays - El Niño - clouds


John L Wrote:III. Skeptic's Rebuttals: Part One

The Amazing Story Behind the Global Warming Scam, By John Coleman

Lorne Gunter: Thirty years of warmer temperatures go poof. by Lorne Gunter

Climate hysterics v heretics in an age of unreason, by Arthur Herman

Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate (pdf), S. Fred Singer, Ph.D.

The REAL inconvenient truth: Zealotry over global warming could damage our Earth far more than climate change, By NIGEL LAWSON

Climate facts to warm to: CATASTROPHIC predictions of global warming usually conjure with the notion of a tipping point, a point of no return. , by Christopher Pearson

Br-r-r! Where did global warming go?, By Jeff Jacoby

Kyoto Schmyoto, by Randall Hoven

No consensus on IPCC's level of ignorance, By John Christy
"At our present level of ignorance, we think we know..."

Ponder the Maunder: Introduction

Man vs. Nature: Challenging Conventional Views About Global Warming, By JOHN STOSSEL

Questioning 20th Century Warmth

Gerd Bürger: 20th century warming was statistically insignificant

PDF: Man Made Global Warming: A Review Of The Evidence

The Truth Stripped Naked

Chilling Effect: Newsweek equates global warming skeptics with Holocaust deniers and accuses reputable scientists of being paid to create confusion in the face of consensus. Galileo is once again on trial.


Chilling Effect: Rebutting the Newsweek "hit piece"

Climate Extremism: the Real Threat to Civilization, By Dr. Timothy Ball and Tom Harris

Global Warming: Man-Made or Natural?, by Dr Fred S. Singer

Two More Global Warming False Alarms: Global warming scares: hurricanes, Atlantic Ocean conveyor currents, by By Dennis T. Avery

Chilling Effect

When Physics Trumps Hysteria in Global Warming, by Michael R. Fox, Ph.D.

Global Warming Theories Fizzle, New Studies Show

Global Warming: A Convenient Lie, by Andrew Marshall

Glolbal Warming Debunked

Not the End of the World as We Know It, By Olaf Stampf

Liberals' Kyoto plan full of hot air, by Lorne Gunter

PDF - Apocalypse cancelled, Sunday Telegraph, 5 November, 2006

Danish scientist: Global warming is a myth

PDF What Climate Scientists Really Say About Global Warming

PDF: Apocalypse cancelled

Measuring the Temperature of Earth From Space: Even with Needed Corrections, Data Still Don't Show the Expected Signature of Global Warming, By Dr. Roy Spencer
Senior Scientist for Climate Studies NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

Greenhouse effect is a myth, say scientists By JULIE WHELDON

The Great Global Warming Swindle

PDF: 'Global Warming' TV Special 'Misleads Public,' Scientist Says, By Randy Hall

Global Warnings from the Ivory Tower

Some Convergence of Global Warming Estimates, by Dr Roy Spencer


Wrong Problem, Wrong Solution, by Christopher Monckton

Inconvenient Truths

The IPCC Should Leave Science to Scientists

Science Wars by Lowell Ponte

Global Warming: The Cold, Hard Facts? By Timothy Ball

Climate of Opinion : The latest U.N. report shows the "warming" debate is far from settled.

Earth’s Climate Cycle Is Unstoppable by Dennis T. Avery

Give Thanks for Earth's Good Fortune by Dennis T. Avery

(PDF)Global Deception: The Exaggeration of the Global Warming Threat. by Dr. Patrick J. Michaels

(PDF)A Skeptics Guide to Debunking Global Warming Alarmism, Hot & Cold Media Spin Cycle: A Challenge to Journalists who Cover Global Warming

'Alarmist' Global Warming Claims Unfounded Says Climatolgist
By Marc Morano

'Bring It on,' Climatologist Says of Global Warming Litigation

There IS a problem with global warming... it stopped in 1998 By Bob Carter

Modern 'global warming' may turn out to be just a lot of hot air
By Bob Carter

'An Inconvenient Truth': climate change is indeed a moral issue
By Bob Carter

Global Warming Hysteria, and the Deadly Disease of Hansenism

Where's the Ice? by Dennis T. Avery

An Inconvenient Truth: An Inaccurate Depiction of the State of Global Warming Science
by Robert C. Balling Jr.

Renowned Scientist Defects From Belief in Global Warming – Caps Year of Vindication for Skeptics

Open Letter: Open Kyoto To Debate, 60 Scientists Call On Harper
To Revisit The Science Of Global Warming


Stern Review: The dodgy numbers behind the latest warming scare. BY BJORN LOMBORG

David Deming: Inhofe Correct On Global Warming

Investor’s Business Daily Editorial: Cooling Down The Climate Scare


Will Al Gore Melt? If not, why did he chicken out on an interview? BY FLEMMING ROSE AND BJORN LOMBORG

Global warming nothing but a paper tiger

Dr Fred Singer's Response to Sir Nicholas Stern

Global warming 'just a natural cycle'

Climate of Fear
Global-warming alarmists intimidate dissenting scientists into silence. BY RICHARD LINDZEN

(PDF)Reply to Union of Concerned Scientists, Smoke, Mirrors and Hot Air-The Marshall Institute

(PDF)Reply to Matthew Quayle, Executive Producer of Squawk Box, on CNBC Presentation of "Fire And Ice"

(PDF)Climate Zealotry Produces Bad Policy: Observations on Al Gore’s New York University Speech


------A: Public Opinion

'Scepticism' over climate claims

Three Quarters Believe Global Warming A 'Natural Occurrence'


‘Consensus’ On Man-Made Global Warming Collapses in 2008

30,000 Deniers

500 Scientists with Documented Doubts of Man-Made Global Warming Scares: List with Study Citations List of scientists with studies they have published By: Dennis T. Avery; September 14, 2007

What About Concensus?-Friends Of Science

An Open Letter to the Signers of “Climate Change: An Evangelical Call to Action” and Others Concerned About Global Warming

The 'Old' Consensus?

Global Warming Consensus Does Not Exist Among Scientists
Letter to the editor: The Wichita Eagle, by Joesph Bast

PDF: Survey: Less Than Half of all Published Scientists Endorse Global Warming Theory

Environmental Reality

PDF: The Not So Clear Consensus on Climate Change, by Dennis Bray

Warming Debate Not Over, Survey of Scientists Shows, by James M. Taylor

Survey Shows Climatologists Are Split on Global Warming, by James M. Taylor

Scientific Consensus on Global Warming

Consensus Can Be Bad for Climate Science, by Willie Soon and Sallie Baliunas

They Call This A Concensus?

Consensus is Nonsensus in Scientific Matters, By Michael R. Fox Ph.D.

It’s the Science, Stupid-Don’t be misled: There is no global-warming consensus among scientists. By Thomas Sowell


Still No Consensus on Global Warming Science, by James M. Taylor

PDF: A Treaty Built on Hot Air, Not Scientific Consensus, by S. Fred Singer

There Is No 'Consensus' On Global Warming By RICHARD S. LINDZEN

PDF: Consensus of Scientists, Climatologists at Odds, by Patrick J. Michaels

(DF)Group Think and Consensus

PDF: Consensus? What Consensus?, by Patrick J. Michaels

[PDF] Science Is Not Consensus by Bob Carter

"Aliens Cause Global Warming": A lecture by Michael Crichton

Stoat: Consensus science

List of scientists opposing global warming consensus: From Wikipedia

PDF:Survey of State and Regional Climatologists, Opinion Poll


All in a Good Cause, By Orson Scott Card

David Holland

Global Warming Bombshell

Midieval Global Warming


The "Hockeystick" The Global Warming Scandal of the Decade

Breaking the “Hockey Stick”

“Hockey sticks, principal components and spurious significance” S McIntyre & R McKitrick

Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data

"The IPCC, the "Hockey Stick" Curve, and the Illusion of Experience," Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, November 18, 2003

The Mann et al. Hockey Stick: A Tale of Due Diligence. Ross McKitrick, Ph.D.

Hockey Stick on Ice : Politicizing the science of global warming.

"Hockey Stick or Slapstick? (Roundtable Slides)," Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, May 11, 2005

The Hockey Stick Debate: Lessons in Disclosure and Due Diligence - Color Slides," Stephen McIntyre and Ross McKitrick, May 11, 2005


On Refereeing: UN IPCC-A Very Political Body Posing As Scientific Institution, by Dr John Brignell

Climatology Versus Climatism

Kyoto sinks Europe: Billions in costs make it more and more unlikely that the EU can continue to go it alone slashing carbon emissions, by BENNY PEISER

What is Wrong with the IPCC?, by Hans Labohm

The Big Secret: Climate Bills Result in No Meaningful Impact on Global Temperature

NASA, James Hansen, and the Politicization of Science

The politics of global warming, By Bill Steigerwald

DeLay: Climate change expands government By: Tom DeLay

Adapting to Global Warming

Farmers in Global Warming Alarmists' Crosshairs

EMOTIONALIZING CLIMATE CHANGE: Is the IPCC Doing Harm to Science? By Uwe Buse

The Green Counter-Establishment: How It Holds Power,By Bonner Cohen

Kyoto Protocol Is Dead By Ronald Bailey

Global warming: Deceiving us for our own good

Two Sides to Global Warming: Is it proven fact, or just conventional wisdom?

Americans Still Cool On Global Warming

The Fog of Warming
Dated scripts on the Hill. By Christopher C. Horner: Why Jonn McCain should not be elected President

Global Warming Science, Or Policy?

Climate Change Is Not About The Weather

Cleveland's weather wizards downplay global warming

Weapons of Global Warming Destruction By Noel Sheppard


Global Warming Panic: Politicians Try to Stifle Scientists , By Debra Saunders

Climate of Fear: Global-warming alarmists intimidate dissenting scientists into silence. by Prof. Richard Lindzen

NASA Global Warming Soap Opera Takes Dramatic New Twist

PDF: Leftist Hate: Gore Fans Abuse, Threaten Gore Foes, by Deroy Murdock

Scientists threatened for 'climate denial' By Tom Harper


U.N. says world fisheries face collapse

Rising Seas Likely to Flood U.S. History, By SETH BORENSTEIN

Warming may bring hurricanes to Mediterranean

A Dry Horizon For The Amazon

AP Global Warming Writer Over the Top - Again, By Marc Sheppard

------G. THE IRONY

Climate deniers to send film to British schools, By Michael McCarthy

Before Gore

Human greed takes lion's share of solar energy

Scientist Implicates Worms in Global Warming

Plants Bad for the Environment? Celebrities Causing Frogs to Croak? By Steven Milloy

Can't See the Warming for the Trees, By Steven Milloy

Weather Breaks Record

Greenpeace Rebuilding Noah's Ark to Highlight Global Warming

The Year Without Toilet Paper

Tourists cause global warming

Group braves snow to raise awareness for environment

Global Warming: Moving Towards Metrosexuals

Frostbite ends Bancroft-Arnesen trek

Drought Blamed On Lack Of Faith

Al Gore’s Personal Energy Use Is His Own “Inconvenient Truth”

Greenies, want to save the world? Stay home, By Caroline Oveington

So Now We Are Holocaust Deniers

Global Warming Hysteria Has Arrived

Dr Death And Mother Gaia


Study Shows Why the Flu Likes Winter, By GINA KOLATA

The Possible Health Effects of Climate Change on the US, by Jonathan A. Patz et al.

The world is richer and healthier, by Allister Heath

Global Warming will make you healthy and sexy By James Lewis


Extreme weather should be no surprise, By Christopher Howse

Climate Change Is Nothing New (Ask Plato), By BRUCE BARTLETT

Reducing Climate-Sensitive Risks in the Medium Term: Stabilisation or Adaptation? By: Indur M. Goklany

Climate Change and Sustainable Development, by Martin Agerup et al.

A Climate Policy for the Short and Medium Term: Stabilization and Adaptation? By Indur M. Goklany

Integrated Strategies to Reduce Vulnerability and Advance Adaptation, Mitigation, and Sustainable Development
Written By: Indur M. Goklany

Water Resources and Climate Change, by Kenneth Frederick

Global Warming Is Increasing Alpine Species Richness

Living With Global Warming

Global Warming--Hot Problem, or Hot Air? By: Jonathan Adler

Adapting to Climate Change

Warming without Regrets, by Jonathan H. Adler

What Should We Do about Global Warming? Murray Weidenbaum

Stern Review on the economics of climate change

ncee draft
Sodomia delenda est

11 year global cooling... no basis for Green House Gas affecting climate. Yeah, Al, it is so-o-o-o settled!
From CH3 Headlines

Empirical Data Vs. Predictions
A growing compilation of peer reviewed published science papers as posted from the Hockey Schtick blog:
Tommy's site, Wrote:New paper shows warming causes decreased extreme weather

Imagine that? Who'da' thunk it? Especially the Buzz. S13

And since most of us, who are actually informed on all this, already know that warmer is safer,...........get ready for a wild ride into the next Little Ice Age.

[Image: Riding%20the%20Bull.jpg]

(10-14-2012, 11:17 AM)John L Wrote:
Tommy's site, Wrote:New paper shows warming causes decreased extreme weather

Imagine that? Who'da' thunk it? Especially the Buzz. S13

And since most of us, who are actually informed on all this, already know that warmer is safer,...........get ready for a wild ride into the next Little Ice Age.

[Image: Riding%20the%20Bull.jpg]

I am sure he will ignore this too because it is inconvenient:

Paper finds Arctic sea ice extent 8,000 years ago was less than half of the 'record' low 2007 level

(10-14-2012, 01:05 PM)Palladin Wrote:

Isn't that amazing?! Without doubt, the AGW issue is one of the "Five Big Lies" of the 20th Century. And it is perhaps right behind "Silent Spring/DDT is a killer",(where countless millions have died from malaria), and "Its the Jew's Fault"(where only six million died as a result).

Unfortunately, the total costs are in countless billions of dollars, Pounds, Euros, etc. Fortunately, the number of lives are still questionable.

But what is so frustrating is that there are so many people, Buzz included, who still adamantly defend the obviously indefensible. Talk about brilliance on display. Or am I mixing that up with hard-headedness?

I'd put eugenics in there. Might have been what partially animated Hitler's thinking, not to mention the "disgusting" done here with our sterilization programs for blacks, retarded folks, deformed, etc.
(10-14-2012, 03:46 PM)Palladin Wrote: I'd put eugenics in there. Might have been what partially animated Hitler's thinking, not to mention the "disgusting" done here with our sterilization programs for blacks, retarded folks, deformed, etc.

That makes some sense. But first we have to identify the 'Big Lie' leading up to the action. Do you have any ideas?

You'd have to do some research to figure that out. I imagine some of Hitler's logic was parroted from the eugenics movement. Remember, Jews were not his only victims, many were retarded folks, deformed, homosexuals, gypsies,etc. Probably all due to his view of eugenics.
Forgot the link the first time:

Paper finds Arctic sea ice extent 8,000 years ago was less than half of the 'record' low 2007 level

Additional links here:

Now up to 50 science papers and reports in the thread:

Climategate 3
CO2 levels hit new peak at key observatory

Quote:(CNN) -- In some ways, it's just a number, but it's a big number with enormous implications.

For the first time, scientists measured an average concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide of 400 parts per million in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, where the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration observatory is located, on Thursday.

"Most experts that really study CO2 amounts estimate that we haven't seen that amount of CO2 in our atmosphere in about 3 million years," said J. Marshall Shepherd, climate change expert and professor at the University of Georgia. In other words, modern humans have never seen carbon dioxide in these proportions before.

Scientists say it's apparent that human activity -- namely burning coal, oil and natural gas -- has been driving a rapid rise of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide changes climate and drives acidification of the ocean.

"Once emitted, it remains for the ocean atmosphere system for thousands of years, warming the planet. It changes climate and is driving ocean acidification all that time," said Jim Butler, a senior scientist at NOAA.

Among the many risks of rising temperatures, agriculture, forestry, ecosystems and human health are all expected to suffer as a result of trends in climate change.

Turbulence ahead as climate changes

The amount of carbon dioxide varies daily somewhat and has cycled historically in accordance with changes in the Earth's orbit, a phenomenon known as Milankovitch cycles. But the exponential rise in carbon dioxide levels since the Industrial Revolution is far out of the ordinary, experts say.

The number 400 parts per million is symbolic of what many scientists believe to be the inevitable growth of this gas in our atmosphere, Shepherd said. Getting to this number was to be expected.

"It also is kind of a warning sign or red flag that hey, we really need to tackle this problem," he said. "It's happening right before our eyes."

In about eight to 10 years, levels will not go under 400 parts per million, Butler said. And in terms of reaching new carbon dioxide highs, 450 will come even faster than than the change from 350 to 400, given observed trends, Shepherd said. For comparison, the last time annual CO2 was 350 parts per million was in the 1980s.

Butler likens the phenomenon to an electric blanket. When you turn the dial, it takes a little while to warm up. It's as if humans have turned the dial on Earth's blanket, and we'll feel the heat only in a matter of time.

"Even if we stopped emitting CO2, temperatures would still rise for at least a decade or two because the system has to catch up with it," Butler said.

Most carbon dioxide is in the Northern Hemisphere, because most people on the planet live in these parts, Butler said.

In 2012, monitoring stations in the Arctic measured 400 parts per million, but this is a new high at Mauna Loa. The global average will catch up in a year or two, he said.

Since scientists began measuring at Mauna Loa in 1958, the concentration of carbon dioxide has been increasing every year, NOAA said. The rate of this rise has been accelerating, from 0.7 ppm per year in the late 1950s to 2.1 ppm per year over the last decade.

Before the 19th-century Industrial Revolution, the average carbon dioxide concentration worldwide was about 280 parts per million. Over the course of the past 800,000 years, says NOAA, these levels bounced between 180 and 280 parts per million.

NOAA: Watch history of carbon dioxide levels

You might be wondering how the planet could be warming if this past winter has been relatively cool.

Shepherd explains that weather is akin to mood, but climate is analogous to personality. Weather changes a lot, but climate is something more fundamental, causing overall patterns.

Study: Climate change may contribute to civil wars

It may appear that, in the grand scheme of things, there's not a lot of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere to begin with. The most abundant gas is nitrogen, at 78%, followed by oxygen at 21%. Having a tiny amount of carbon dioxide is essential for our survival; without it, the planet would be too cold.

Opinion: How to fight climate change

But too much carbon dioxide, which leads to too much overall warming, is bad.

While it's impossible to say that any particular event was "caused by global warming," says Shepherd, climate change loads the deck, making extreme events such as last year's Superstorm Sandy more likely.

These storms also become more disastrous with rising sea levels. The sea level near New York City was about 10 inches higher in 2012 than in 1900, Shepherd said.

The Mauna Loa station is the oldest in the world to measure carbon dioxide.

"It's an alarming marker that we've passed," Butler said. "Mauna Loa, the iconic site for CO2, has reached 400 for the first time over a day. That's big."
It's kind of depressing. S7
(05-11-2013, 10:37 AM)Grizzly Wrote: It's kind of depressing. S7

Why is it depressing Robert? The simple fact is that CO2 is great for growing plants, think crops. Currently we are at the lowest CO2 levels in the history of the planet. CO2 is good for life on planet earth.

And while CO2 levels have been headed up, global temperatures have been heading downward. So, what is there to be depressed about? Certainly you must have been outside for several years now, and noticed that temperatures are below normal, and getting cooler with each year.

What you really should be depressed about is the coming round of Little Ice Age that is bearing down on us again. With all the information in this thread, and some others, you have gotten the message by now, right?

Come on! Think positive.

Now, here's another article to show you, from the WSJ. And it is certainly much more positive, and factual, than the one you posted above. Now, please take the time and read it, ok?

Quote:Harrison H. Schmitt and William Happer: In Defense of Carbon Dioxide
The demonized chemical compound is a boon to plant life and has little correlation with global temperature.

Of all of the world's chemical compounds, none has a worse reputation than carbon dioxide. Thanks to the single-minded demonization of this natural and essential atmospheric gas by advocates of government control of energy production, the conventional wisdom about carbon dioxide is that it is a dangerous pollutant. That's simply not the case. Contrary to what some would have us believe, increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will benefit the increasing population on the planet by increasing agricultural productivity.

The cessation of observed global warming for the past decade or so has shown how exaggerated NASA's and most other computer predictions of human-caused warming have been—and how little correlation warming has with concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. As many scientists have pointed out, variations in global temperature correlate much better with solar activity and with complicated cycles of the oceans and atmosphere. There isn't the slightest evidence that more carbon dioxide has caused more extreme weather.

The current levels of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere, approaching 400 parts per million, are low by the standards of geological and plant evolutionary history. Levels were 3,000 ppm, or more, until the Paleogene period (beginning about 65 million years ago). For most plants, and for the animals and humans that use them, more carbon dioxide, far from being a "pollutant" in need of reduction, would be a benefit. This is already widely recognized by operators of commercial greenhouses, who artificially increase the carbon dioxide levels to 1,000 ppm or more to improve the growth and quality of their plants.

Using energy from sunlight—together with the catalytic action of an ancient enzyme called rubisco, the most abundant protein on earth—plants convert carbon dioxide from the air into carbohydrates and other useful molecules. Rubisco catalyzes the attachment of a carbon-dioxide molecule to another five-carbon molecule to make two three-carbon molecules, which are subsequently converted into carbohydrates. (Since the useful product from the carbon dioxide capture consists of three-carbon molecules, plants that use this simple process are called C3 plants.) C3 plants, such as wheat, rice, soybeans, cotton and many forage crops, evolved when there was much more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than today. So these agricultural staples are actually undernourished in carbon dioxide relative to their original design.

At the current low levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rubisco in C3 plants can be fooled into substituting oxygen molecules for carbon-dioxide molecules. But this substitution reduces the efficiency of photosynthesis, especially at high temperatures. To get around the problem, a small number of plants have evolved a way to enrich the carbon-dioxide concentration around the rubisco enzyme, and to suppress the oxygen concentration. Called C4 plants because they utilize a molecule with four carbons, plants that use this evolutionary trick include sugar cane, corn and other tropical plants.

Although C4 plants evolved to cope with low levels of carbon dioxide, the workaround comes at a price, since it takes additional chemical energy. With high levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, C4 plants are not as productive as C3 plants, which do not have the overhead costs of the carbon-dioxide enrichment system.

That's hardly all that goes into making the case for the benefits of carbon dioxide. Right now, at our current low levels of carbon dioxide, plants are paying a heavy price in water usage. Whether plants are C3 or C4, the way they get carbon dioxide from the air is the same: The plant leaves have little holes, or stomata, through which carbon dioxide molecules can diffuse into the moist interior for use in the plant's photosynthetic cycles.

The density of water molecules within the leaf is typically 60 times greater than the density of carbon dioxide in the air, and the diffusion rate of the water molecule is greater than that of the carbon-dioxide molecule.

So depending on the relative humidity and temperature, 100 or more water molecules diffuse out of the leaf for every molecule of carbon dioxide that diffuses in. And not every carbon-dioxide molecule that diffuses into a leaf gets incorporated into a carbohydrate. As a result, plants require many hundreds of grams of water to produce one gram of plant biomass, largely carbohydrate.

Driven by the need to conserve water, plants produce fewer stomata openings in their leaves when there is more carbon dioxide in the air. This decreases the amount of water that the plant is forced to transpire and allows the plant to withstand dry conditions better.

Crop yields in recent dry years were less affected by drought than crops of the dust-bowl droughts of the 1930s, when there was less carbon dioxide. Nowadays, in an age of rising population and scarcities of food and water in some regions, it's a wonder that humanitarians aren't clamoring for more atmospheric carbon dioxide. Instead, some are denouncing it.

We know that carbon dioxide has been a much larger fraction of the earth's atmosphere than it is today, and the geological record shows that life flourished on land and in the oceans during those times. The incredible list of supposed horrors that increasing carbon dioxide will bring the world is pure belief disguised as science.

Mr. Schmitt, an adjunct professor of engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was an Apollo 17 astronaut and a former U.S. senator from New Mexico. Mr. Happer is a professor of physics at Princeton University and a former director of the office of energy research at the U.S. Department of Energy.

Well John I'm still up in the air period on if it is man or cycles of this planet. One thing is for sure: this thing needs to be looked at closer than it is right now.

It does no one any good if we go through another ice age and not even try to find out when it is going to happen and what society can do to prepare for it--and I can care less if we find out that humans or the Earth is the culprit.

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