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Archaeology News
#41
Ever since growing up in the 50s and 60s, I have been a big fan of the late Howard Carter and his work on King Tutankhamen's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. So naturally this article really grabbed my attention, because I already knew he had sustained injuries either immediately before, or after he was interned. I know this is not a new article, but it is the first time I have seen it before.

Did a Hippo Kill King Tut?
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All men are frauds. The only difference between them is that some admit it. I myself deny it.
H. L. Mencken
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#42
The further back we uncover our ancestor's past, the more we realize just how civilized and technical they really were.  This is why there is a growing consensus that human civilization goes back thousands of years earlier.  Here is just one more example of the continuing roll-back of earliest evidences of technical advance.

Quote:The Ancient Greeks Used Machines to Lift Stones 150 Years Earlier Than Previously Believed.  
An examination of grooves on blocks of stone from early temples suggest they were lifted and then levered into place using a frame

[Image: big-blocks.gif]

Archaeologists have long believed that the forerunners of the cranes that now dot the skylines of cities across the globe were invented by Greek engineers around 515 B.C. But a new study suggests that earlier versions of the lifting machines were being used on the Greek peninsula 150 years earlier.

The evidence comes from temples at the ancient cities of Isthmia and Corinth dating from 700 to 650 B.C. The 440- to 880-pound blocks used to construct the temples have unusual twin grooves running along the bottoms of the stones. Researchers have argued about the purpose of the grooves for decades. That's why architecture professor Alessandro Pierattini of the University of Notre Dame decided to take a closer look.

“Scholars have proposed two alternative interpretations for these grooves: they served either for attaching the blocks to lifting machines or for moving blocks in the quarry,” he tells George Dvorsky at Gizmodo. “My reexamination concludes that the grooves served for lifting and testify to the first experiments with lifting architectural blocks in Greek history.”

The study appears in the Annual of the British School at Athens.


[Image: urn:cambridge.org:id:binary:201906031353...tatus=live]
(a) Fisherman's knot (consisting of two overhand knots). (b) Flemish bend (consisting of a double figure eight bend). © Sling for suspending a block, consisting of a loop of rope accommodated in the grooves. (d) Attaching the sling to a lever. (e) Using levers for moving the block vertically (and removing the rollers). Drawings by the author.

[Image: urn:cambridge.org:id:binary:201906031353...tatus=live]
Setting technique (1: lifting and lowering; 2: pushing) and the conjectural development of ways of lifting the contact end of a block with levers. (a) Lever attached to a rope accommodated by grooves in the blocks of the early temples at Isthmia and Corinth. (b) Lever attached to a loop of rope accommodated by a V-shaped hole. © Lever's tip accommodated by a specific cutting below the upper edge of the block's contact face. Drawings by the author.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
All men are frauds. The only difference between them is that some admit it. I myself deny it.
H. L. Mencken
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