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Campi Flegrei: Super-Volcano of Naples
#1
While volcanoes within the Ring Of Fire are garnering almost all the attention today, along with the potential threat from the Yellowstone supervolcano(actually there are a number of them there), is the less known, but every bit as dangerous supervolcano caldera of Campi Flegrei, which is located at Naples. The more time I spend studying the site, the more fascinated with it I become. Its simply amazing the archaeological treasures there.

But also, there is the imminent threat of danger to millions of Italians, who live in and around the immediate area. And to think that I did not even know about this site, other than Mt. Vesuvius, on the other side of the bay. And Vesuvius pales in comparison, because here, on the other side of the bay, is a MEI 7 caldera that historically has erupted far more times than just about any other supervolcano in the world.

Here's the passage I wrote yesterday, while going through the almost unlimited information and images about the site.

Big things are beginning to wake up around and under Naples, Italy, right next to Mt. Vesuvius.
Volcanic Rumbles Mean Magma Might Be Seeping Under Naples

Quote:I’VE SAID THIS before, but if you wanted to pick the most volcanically-hazardous place to live on Earth today, it would be hard to beat Naples in Italy. Vesuvius looms over the city, settled into a rather long period of quiet after centuries of sometimes spectacular (and deadly) eruptions. However, just to the west of Vesuvius is the equally hazardous Campi Flegrei(also known as (Phlegraean Fields). Unlike Vesuvius, there are no towering mountains, but rather a series of somewhat unassuming cones and craters all nestled within a caldera that spans over 20 kilometers around Pozzuoli. The Campi Flegrei has produced two of the biggest eruptions Europe has seen in the last 50,000 years: the Campanian Ignimbrite (40,000 years ago) and the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (15,000 years ago), both of which ranked as VEI 6-7 (or something as big as or larger than Krakatau in 1883!) So, sitting underneath over a million people sits the European equivalent to something like Tambora.

[Image: article-1342820-0C9D8AF6000005DC-146_634x473.jpg]

This map above, from a 2011 article describes what the people of neighboring Naples go through on a continual off-and-on-again basis. Note that Naples is right in the middle, between Vesuvius, and the much larger Campi Flegrei. The later is classified as a VEI 7 supervolcano, and the later, which destroyed Pompiii and Herculinium, is not in the same category.

Here's a closeup look at the center of the Campi Flegrei caldera.

[Image: camp_flegrei_map.jpg]

Note the huge number of eruption locations in just that one small area. And by just looking at the coastline of the area, it is easy to see that there were others that are underwater in the bay as well. This volcano tends to go off more frequently than other supervolcanoes, and of slightly less magnitude, but still huge nonetheless. The last major eruption was 12,000 ago, and I'm not sure how much it ejected. But the next big event before that, just a little over 39,000 years ago, threw out 500 cubic kilometers of ejecta.

That's an awful lot of material. The Tambora event of 1815, also a MEI 7 threw out only about 160 cubic kilometers of ejecta. And in comparrison to the Thera Eruption, just north of Crete, which almost certainly led to the Atlantis Tale, is much smaller. It led to the destruction of the Greek Minoan culture, was a MEI 6, and threw up only 60 cubic kilometers of ejecta. So, this is really another super-volcano, just waiting to blow up again. And the people of Naples live with this threat on a continual basis. Amazing.

Here's a nice set of postings on another forum, which describes the immedite area, along with a lot of great pictures, showing early Greek and Roman building, much of it partially underground. There are also a lot of pictures of the Greek and Roman underground mazes that penetrate the area.
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#2
This site, "The Oracle of the Dead At Baia", is most fascinating, in that it also discusses the huge caldera there at Naples, known as the Phleghrean Fields and how it has affected the ancient history of the Greeks and Romans.

It also shows how the topography has changed over time.

[Image: cumae-baia-maps.jpg]

[Image: ALRIVes0831Shorelines.jpg]

[Image: Baiae.jpg]







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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#3
Talk about real climate change causes, if something like this blew, we'd see serious changes.
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#4
Yep, here we are worried about Yellowstone, and if any super-volcano does erupt, it will be this one most likely. And it will make the Thera eruption look like child's play. I wonder how many Italians would be killed right off?

[Image: E3800243-Santorini_before_and_after_expl...BC-SPL.jpg]
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#5
Please... they are already head over heels in panic over the migrant flood, don't add unnecessary worries for them!
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#6
This is probably the best place to post this video, since Pompeii is so close to Naples, with the volatility of Mount Vesuvius, and the Huge "Campi Flegrei" lying right below Naples itself.  

Pompeii is perhaps the biggest city of sex from the ancient world.  But this has been slow to emerge because of the embarrassment it created to Italians, once all of the sex objects and art were revealed.  But here is something else, from a biblical perspective.  If Sodom and Gomorrah were filled with sin, they were pikers compared to this city living under the shadow of Vesuvius.  Yet, there is no use of Pompeii among Christians, to show just how sin and the wrath of G-d were related to its destruction.  

I wonder why not?  Granted the destruction of Pompeii occurred after the birth and death of Christ.  But John, the person who is believed to have written Revelations, which was clearly about the evils of Rome, and its future destruction, doesn't mention it.   Am I missing something here?  Obviously this would be the classic example of retribution, anywhere and anytime, yet it is not mentioned in churches, or in modern religious literature.  

For the live of me, I cannot see any way that there is any place that beats Pompeii as the world's Sin City.  And perhaps it is most fitting that it, and possibly other dens of iniquity should be set up right above one of the worlds most volatile super-volcanoes.  Talk about the "Art of Living Dangerously".

Sex in the Ancient World Pompeii Documentary


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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#7
Here are some more interesting things about this Huge Super-Volcano just sitting under Naples, and its affect on the surrounding countryside.  The area around Naples is simply spectacular as a result.  And here is a perfect example of it, located just south of Pompeii, along the coastline.  

This is one of the most stunning places in southern Italy: Fiordo di Furore map.

[Image: 43258220.jpg]

[Image: 1100-Furore-foto-1024x634.jpg]

Here's a Great picture article on Amusing Planet, about this gorgeous place.  

Furore: An Italian Village Hidden in a Fjord

The volcanic strategracy is easily apparent at first glimpse.  It's rugged, comes straight down to the shoreline, and leads to very ingenious engineering in order to exploit it.   I regret deeply that my parents and myself, were never able to visit this area, and this site in particular.  Its just so beautiful, and easily understandable as to why so many are willing to live in the vicinity of such potential destruction.
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#8
http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=4e3_1475703094
The true purpose of democracy is not to select the best leaders — a clearly debatable obligation — but to facilitate the prompt and peaceful removal of obviously bad ones. 
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#9
John,

Read Ezekiel 16:48-50. The sex orgies weren't why God had a problem with Sodom, it was the violence associated with it and what Ezekiel points out. In the passages about Sodom in Genesis, the Hebrew word there is not sexual desires as such, it is rape and it states every male there wanted to rape. Extreme violence.
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#10
OK, I began this thread a little over a year ago, because this volcano erupts more often than some of the other 'so called' super volcanoes.  I believe the last time was 39,000, BP, and it has a history of blowing its top a little quicker than some others.  That means it will not be as bad as Yellowstone, or Tambora, but Huge nonetheless.   And its beginning to wake up again.  Shock

Magma is rising underneath Naples' supervolcano Campi Flegrei – and is reaching critical pressure. The supervolcano is close to Naples, which has a population of 1 million people.

[Image: Schermata%202016-12-20%20alle%2019.01.36_20190413.jpg]
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#11
The more I keep seeing and reading all this, the more concerned I am getting.   This thing could really be getting ready to erupt soon.

Here is a very well done piece from an Italian television report on the awakening caldera.

'Very dangerous' supervolcano under Naples showing signs of reawakening


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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#12
Worries are starting to mount in good old Naples: Is Italy's SUPERVOLCANO about to blow? Experts warn that Campi Flegrei is at a 'critical stage' in the build up to a devastating eruption

Quote:While the Campi Flegrei volcano hasn't erupted since 1538, experts have warned that it could be building up to another devastating eruption.

By studying patterns of unrest over the last 500 years, the researchers have predicted that we are reaching a 'critical stage' where further unrest will lead to an eruption.

They hope their findings will urge local authorities to prepare for an eruption, which they say would affect the 360,000 people living across the caldera and Naples' population of nearly one million.

[Image: 405809A800000578-4500412-image-a-7_1494840389718.jpg]
An eruption of the Camp Flegrei supervolcano would dwarf the devastation caused by Mount Vesuvius on the otherside of Naples (illustrated)
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#13
The supervolcano of Campi Flegrei appears to be coming to life again, as a forerunner of the next grand solar minimum, due to begin with the advent of Solar Cycle 25, in 2020.  This time the island of Ischia is feeling the pinch.

Ischia earthquake: Last of three brothers freed from rubble

Quote:The 4.0 magnitude quake struck in the mid-evening, at a depth of around 5km (3 miles), just north of the Casamicciola commune.
Ischia, off the coast of Naples, has a population of about 50,000 and is hugely popular with tourists, many of whom were out in bars and restaurants when the shaking started.

As the next little ice age approaches, the incidence of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions will be increasing worldwide.

[Image: ?width=630&version=3558865]
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#14
But why would the solar minimum, or any accompanying global cooling, cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? Unless there is a major shifting of weights transmitted through the earth's crust as massive changes in ice density in the Arctic/Antarctic occurs. (A phenomenon some theorists have dubbed "isostasis.") Is that what you have in mind, John?
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#15
(08-22-2017, 04:23 PM)Ron Lambert Wrote: But why would the solar minimum, or any accompanying global cooling, cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? Unless there is a major shifting of weights transmitted through the earth's crust as massive changes in ice density in the Arctic/Antarctic occurs. (A phenomenon some theorists have dubbed "isostasis.") Is that what you have in mind, John?

Things are still up in the air, with several different sides to the argument.  But clearly something is causing a lack of solar activity, which pretty much coincides the earth's cooling phases.  But the biggest unknown is why vulcanization and plate shifting immediately precedes all this.  The two don't seem to match, unless there is enough mass periodically close enough to earth to trigger these movements/eruptions.

That's why the theory of the Jovian planets and their alignment may be acting in concert to produce an effect similar to our moon on our oceans.  I know the "Planet X" thing won't go away.  And perhaps there really is a tiny black hole in a stable orbit somewhere between earth and Jupiter.  Who knows.  

This may help a little bit: volcanic activity and little ice age
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Hillary Clinton Is Like Herpes, "She Wont Go Away" - Anna Paulina
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#16
Things are continuing to brew under the city of Naples as Campi Flegrei continues to cause great concern about a possible eruption in the near future.

Scientists locate potential magma source in Italian supervolcano

Quote:Scientists have found the first direct evidence of a so-called 'hot zone' feeding a supervolcano in southern Italy that experts say is nearing eruption conditions. Using seismological techniques, scientists have now pinpointed the location of the hot zone where hot materials rose to feed the caldera during this period.

"One question that has puzzled scientists is where magma is located beneath the caldera, and our study provides the first evidence of a hot zone under the city of Pozzuoli that extends into the sea at a depth of 4 km," Dr De Siena said. "While this is the most probable location of a small batch of magma, it could also be the heated fluid-filled top of a wider magma chamber, located even deeper."

Dr De Siena's study suggests that magma was prevented from rising to the surface in the 1980s by the presence of a 1-2 km-deep rock formation that blocked its path, forcing it to release stress along a lateral route. While the implications of this are still not fully understood, the relatively low amount of seismic activity in the area since the 1980s suggests that pressure is building within the caldera, making it more dangerous.

[Image: Campi-Flegrei-941685.jpg]
Multi-source volcanic risk map of the Campania Region

"During the last 30 years the behaviour of the volcano has changed, with everything becoming hotter due to fluids permeating the entire caldera," Dr De Siena explained."Whatever produced the activity under Pozzuoli in the 1980s has migrated somewhere else, so the danger doesn't just lie in the same spot, it could now be much nearer to Naples which is more densely populated."This means that the risk from the caldera is no longer just in the centre, but has migrated. Indeed, you can now characterise Campi Flegrei as being like a boiling pot of soup beneath the surface.

"What this means in terms of the scale of any future eruption we cannot say, but there is no doubt that the volcano is becoming more dangerous. "The big question we have to answer now is if it is a big layer of magma that is rising to the surface, or something less worrying which could find its way to the surface out at sea."

[Image: 4058048900000578-4500412-image-a-4_1494840194298.jpg]
The researchers predict that an eruption today would affect the 360,000 people living across the caldera (pictured) and Naples' population of nearly one million
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