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Astronomy News
I would love to live in an O'Neill space habitat--but the problem is that rockets are way too expensive to be practical as a means for transporting lots of people into space. We need another method of propulsion that is not so wasteful of energy and materials. If no one invents a Star Trek type impulse drive, then forget about colonizing space. It simply will not be possible.
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(03-14-2017, 05:34 PM)Ron Lambert Wrote: I would love to live in an O'Neill space habitat--but the problem is that rockets are way too expensive to be practical as a means for transporting lots of people into space. We need another method of propulsion that is not so wasteful of energy and materials. If no one invents a Star Trek type impulse drive, then forget about colonizing space. It simply will not be possible.

I had a thread devoted strictly to colonizing space, but I have searched high and low, and can't find it. There are several things I stated that would be required to successfully colonize space.

1. A slight bit of genetic engineering, so as to help the human body retain muscle development in micro-gravity. Muscle atrophy can be a problem. Also, the human body needs to be modified so as to be able to take radiation better than we currently do.

2. Highly developed carbon technology. Steel is out, because there is too much mass. Carbon is more than ten times lighter and stronger. All building material must be made from carbon, which is very abundant in space, and on the planet.
About a week ago, I had a brainstorm about venus. Venus has an atmosphere that is at least 96 times the thickness of earth. And almost an equal percentage of CO2 in the atmosphere. All we would have to do would be to set up an orbiting processing plant, that had a suction tube able to suck out CO2 and break it into carbon and Oxygen(O2). Not only would be have building material, but air to breathe as well.

3. Using carbon technology, we would need space elevators for cheap entry to space. Freight can take the 22 thousand mile trip, but humans would be bored to death. However, once the elevator leaves the atmosphere, and gets up over three hundred miles, it is possible for humans to leave the elevator and enter shuttles, which can take them further out, with little effort.

4. Practical habitats. And the best answer is the O'Neill Cylinder, which would be able to provide natural gravity as it revolved. And the bigger the cylinder the better. They should be able to create at least a half gravity at the minimum, possibly up to one gravity, depending on spin and diameter. This is almost certainly going to be the habitat of choice, unless artificial gravity is developed. And even with that, it will still most likely be the most popular one.

Anyway, I'll keep looking for the thread, because I had a lot of ideas.

One other thing. I don't believe we will develop a faster than light drive. I could be wrong, but don't think so. Can't get something for nothing, and the energy requirement would be astronomical. However, wormholes/fold-points seem like a possibility. If we use Einstein's "Space-Time Continuum" then the attraction of two huge masses will tug on the fabric of space-time, and a fold might be possible. If so, it may be possible to enter that fold and travel to the other end. I think that may be possible.

But in the meantime, our solar system is Huge and can handle trillions of people comfortably. And the natural resources are boundless.
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Evidence just keeps mounting that water on mars was more extensive then previously thought, and it was there far longer than believed.

Quote:Mars had water for longer than previously thought

High concentrations of silica point to the existence of groundwater long after lakes evaporated. This finding extends the potential window for life on the planet.

The discovery of light-toned bedrock – called ‘halos’ – with high concentrations of silica in Mars’ Gale crater, reveals that groundwater persisted once the lake in Gale crater dried up. The discovery was made by NASA’s Curiosity rover which traveled more than 16 km over 1,700 Martian days from the bottom of Gale crater to Mount Sharp in the crater’s center. For researchers who published the study in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, it is now a question of whether this extended window of water on Mars enabled life to develop.
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I'm not sure if you all are aware of this, but the sun has been throwing a tantrum for the last several days now.  Here's what I mean.  This was the sun day before yesterday.

[Image: hmi200.gif]

This is the most sunspots we have had on the sun for some time now, and this is highly unusual. And true to form, we have been the beneficiaries of a huge set of magnetic storms, which arrived today a bit early.

Quote:THE CME HAS ARRIVED, GEOMAGNETIC STORMS IN PROGRESS: A CME has just hit Earth's magnetic field (Sept.7th at ~2300 UT). This is the debris from Wednesday's decade-class X9 solar flare. It arrived earlier than expected, confirming that the storm cloud is both fast and potent. A severe G4-class geomagnetic storm is in progress as our planet's magnetic field reverberates from the impact.

If you wonder why your cell phones don't work well, or your radio station isn't coming in clearly, this is the reason. We've had worse, but a storm like this hasn't hit us for some time now. People in the North are going to get a grant show of the Aurora in the sky. S5

Meanwhile, the guilty sunspot is moving away and will be pointing away from us in a couple more days. But till then.................

Quote:THE FLARES CONTINUE: Sunspot AR2673 remained active on Sept. 7th, producing three M-class flares (M2.4, M1.4, M7.3) and another X-flare (X1.3). Unlike yesterday's monster X9-flare, however, none of today's explosions have hurled a significant CME toward Earth. Ham radio operators may be noticing the effects of these most recent flares in the form of minor shortwave blackouts and strange propagation effects.

[Image: oval2_strip.jpg]
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Here are some of the results of that Huge "X" Class solar flaring out of the sun the other day.

Knik River Valley, Alaska
[Image: Todd-Salat-1-Big-Blast-by-Todd-Salat_1504953943.jpg]

Fairbanks, Alaska
[Image: Marketa-S-Murray--973A1649-Edit_1504355301.jpg]

Sodankylä, Finland
[Image: Satu-Juvonen-_C7B9274-1_1505042877_lg.jpg]

Chapel of Garioch, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
[Image: Graeme-Whipps-IMG_2630---IMG_2632_1504966828_lg.jpg]

Invercargill New Zealand
[Image: Layton-Findlater-fri-8th-sept-aurora-289...904751.jpg]
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Wow, this is certainly hot news.

Half the universe’s missing matter has just been finally found
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We saw that in the last episode of "The Orville" when the ship encountered a "Dark Matter storm" that could not be seen but was going to destroy the ship. Charlize Therron from four centuries in the future drove them out of the danger in order to steal their ship as an historical artifact destroyed by the storm in the real timeline, so she could sell it to collectors in her time. The timeline was altered when the Captain destroyed the wormhole that broached the timeline, causing a new timeline in which Therron faded away as never being born.
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Now this is quite enlightening.

Quote:Another Little Spacecraft That Could: Dawn’s Photos Reveal Distant Secrets

Unveiling Ceres




But Dawn’s discoveries have elevated Ceres to dwarf planet status with much more similarities to Earth and Mars than the Asteroid Belt’s other rocky remnants of the original big bang. Scientists speculate that “little” Ceres may contain more actual (frozen) water than Earth, which is 8,000 miles across and 71 percent covered by water.

Dawn likely has only a few more months of useful life; its ion engines have been turned off for the last scheduled time. As a sort of grand finale, Dawn just flew over Ceres at a minuscule altitude of 21 miles, producing this photo here and hundreds of others still being downloaded by the dutiful little robot with the wide wings.



What Dawn Discovered on Vesta and Ceres


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Here's an interesting find that is quite unusual.

Quote:Rare Double Asteroid Spotted by Three of the World's Largest Radio Telescopes

An asteroid first discovered in December of last year has now been revealed to be a unique system featuring two objects locked in a dance around their own binary orbit.

The news was announced by NASA after observations from three of the world‘s largest radio telescopes confirmed the planetary object's true distinct nature as one of only four of its kind ever seen.

Rare Double Asteroid Revealed by NASA, Observatories


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Underice lake discovered on Mars South Pole.

https://interestingengineering.com/large...ce-of-mars

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-space...SKBN1KF1Z8
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Fred, there's no telling how much water exists beneath the surface. The center of mars may still be hot, but there is no plate tectonics, or liquid mantle. That will naturally leave lots of caverns and openings where water can settle in, instead of having been lost to space.
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Oh My Lord!  This Halloween is my 74th birthday, and just look what we have headed our way.   Shock

Quote:Eerie 'death comet' with a SKULL face will zip past Earth just after Halloween

A 'death comet' will be zipping passed earth just after Halloween this year.

The asteroid with a skull-like face will make its second trip near earth in three years after flying a worrisome 302,000 miles from our planet on October 31, 2015.

This year, the comet will be a much more comfortable 24million miles away on November 11, Mother Nature Network reported.  

The comet, officially recognized as 2015 TB145, has a few nicknames including 'Halloween asteroid', 'death comet' and 'The Great Pumpkin' by NASA.

The 2000-foot-wide rock gets the name 'death comet' not only because of its human skull face, but because it's believed to have been long-dead.

   
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Looks like aurora photographers are going to have an even better opportunity in the upcoming days.  Just look at the size of this coronal hole.  Shock

[Image: ch_strip.jpg]

[Image: LAiszlAsup3-Puri-_P190335-resized_1551124399_lg.jpg]

[Image: Ruslan-Merzlyakov-IMG_9852a_1551118194_lg.jpg]
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http://www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/

Japanese took some sample from an asteroid surface. Then blow an artificial crater to collect unexposed samples.
Awesome!
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This is interesting. S22

The Universe’s First Type of Molecule Is Found at Last


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Now, this is a First.  I've never seen astronomers warning about the potential harm coming from meteors.  Do you think there may be more here than the experts are letting on about?

Quote:Astronomers Warn About Possible Lethal Meteor Shower in June

Astronomers recently speculated that the Beta Taurids meteor shower that’s expected to happen this month could lead to catastrophic and fatal events on Earth. They theorized that the same event that caused the Tunguska disaster in 1908 might happen again soon.

On the morning of June 30, 1908, a huge explosion occurred in the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Russia. The huge explosion decimated about 2,000 square kilometers of forest. Despite the devastation, no human casualties were reported since the affected region was uninhabited.

Initial investigations revealed that a meteor that exploded in mid-air caused the event. It was regarded as Earth’s largest impact event in recorded history.

For the astronomers of the John J. McCarthy Observatory in New Milford, Connecticut, the meteor that caused the Tunguska event may have come from the Beta Taurids, a meteor shower that happens annually starting in June. According to astronomer Monty Robson, a meteor may have broken loose from the Beta Taurids swarm and crashed on Earth, the Middletown Press reported.

Robson and his colleagues are now closely monitoring the upcoming Beta Taurids shower after data analysis showed that this year’s event will bring the swarm of meteors closest to Earth. According to a press release by Canada’s Western University, the upcoming meteor shower will approach Earth within 30 million kilometers, which marks its closest encounter since 1975.

“There is strong meteoric and [near-Earth object] evidence supporting the Taurid swarm and its potential existential risks but this summer brings a unique opportunity to observe and quantify these objects,” David Clark of Western University said in a statement.
 
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this is about a most unusual asteroid, named 16 Psyche.  And what makes it so unusual is that it is almost entirely composed of nickel and iron, and its estimated to be worth an unbelievable amount of money.

Quote:NASA readies mission to mysterious $10,000 QUADRILLION Psyche asteroid

The value of all the nickel and iron that NASA believes makes up 16-Psyche’s oddly-shaped space rock in the asteroid belt’s outer reaches is estimated at $10,000 quadrillion($10,000,000,000,000,000 dollars). This is a massive sum, but NASA’s Psyche mission, which has now received approval to enter the final development stages before manufacturing begins for its 2022 launch, is actually after a much bigger prize – revealing how Earth's origins. NASA researchers believe asteroid Psyche is key to understanding how planetary bodies are formed.

[Image: 16-Psyche-asteroid-960x540.jpg]

This is because the space scientists theorise Psyche is really the core of a planet which broke apart following a succession of apocalyptic collisions.

NASA experts hope they can observe the solar system’s distant past, when protoplanet encounters created Earth and destroyed other would-be terrestrial planets.

NASA's web site on Psyche

Why is NASA sending a spacecraft to a metal world? - Linda T. Elkins-Tanton


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